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Reversible female contraceptives: historical, current, and future perspectives

Contraception is a practice with extensive and complicated social and scientific histories. From cycle tracking, to the very first prescription contraceptive pill, to now having over-the-counter contraceptives on demand, family planning is an aspect of healthcare that has undergone and will continue to undergo several transformations through time. This review provides a comprehensive overview of current reversible hormonal and non-hormonal birth control methods as well as their mechanism of action, safety, and effectiveness specifically for individuals who can become pregnant. Additionally, we discuss the latest Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved hormonal method containing estetrol and drospirenone that has not yet been used worldwide as well as the first FDA-approved hormonal over-the-counter progestin-only pills. We also review available data on novel hormonal delivery through microchip, microneedle, and the latest FDA-approved non-hormonal methods such as vaginal pH regulators. Finally, this review will assist in advancing female contraceptive method development by underlining constructive directions for future pursuits. Information was gathered from the NCBI and Google Scholars databases using English and included publications from 1900 to present. Search terms included contraceptive names as well as efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action. In summary, we suggest that investigators consider the side effects and acceptability together with the efficacy of contraceptive candidate towards their development.

 

November 2023

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Resource Type:

Database
Journal Article
Journal Article
Resource

Citation:

Contraception is a practice with extensive and complicated social and scientific histories. From cycle tracking, to the very first prescription contraceptive pill, to now having over-the-counter contraceptives on demand, family planning is an aspect of healthcare that has undergone and will continue to undergo several transformations through time. This review provides a comprehensive overview of current reversible hormonal and non-hormonal birth control methods as well as their mechanism of action, safety, and effectiveness specifically for individuals who can become pregnant. Additionally, we discuss the latest Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved hormonal method containing estetrol and drospirenone that has not yet been used worldwide as well as the first FDA-approved hormonal over-the-counter progestin-only pills. We also review available data on novel hormonal delivery through microchip, microneedle, and the latest FDA-approved non-hormonal methods such as vaginal pH regulators. Finally, this review will assist in advancing female contraceptive method development by underlining constructive directions for future pursuits. Information was gathered from the NCBI and Google Scholars databases using English and included publications from 1900 to present. Search terms included contraceptive names as well as efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action. In summary, we suggest that investigators consider the side effects and acceptability together with the efficacy of contraceptive candidate towards their development.

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Authors: Barton, B.E., Erickson, J.A., Allred, S.I., Jeffries, J.M., Stephens, K.K., Hunter, M.I., Woodall, K.A. and Winuthayanon, W.

Health Risks(s):

  • Unintended Pregnancy

Product type(s):

  • Contraceptives
  • Hormonal

Topic(s):

  • DrugInteractions
  • Development

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