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pH-triggered polymeric nanoparticles in gel for preventing vaginal transmission of HIV and unintended pregnancy

Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) and unplanned pregnancy affect female reproductive health globally. A single product providing a dual purpose of HIV prophylaxis and contraception may improve adherence to the therapy. Thus, we formulated a female-centric multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) comprising of nanoparticle loaded vaginal gel formulation acting as a contraceptive and microbicide. Eudragit® S100 nanoparticles of Atazanavir sulphate (ATZ; antiviral) and Fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX; repurposed spermicide) were prepared for pH dependent drug release and loaded in carrageenan and HPMC K200M gel. The particle size of ATZ and FLX nanoparticles was 396.7 ± 20.64 nm and 226.5 ± 2.08 nm respectively. The in vitro release of the gel formulation in simulated seminal fluid (pH 7.6) showed 96.16% and 95.98% release of ATZ and FLX respectively at the end of 8 h. The in vitro anti-HIV and spermicidal activity of the formulation was above 80% for low drug concentrations. In vivo studies on murine model showed no signs of inflammation or vaginal epithelial injury. Curcumin based imaging confirmed the retention of the formulation in the reproductive tract of mice with minimal leakage. Nanoparticles in gel enabled non-invasive and localised delivery with minimal side effects and can be an effective prophylactic therapy.

October 2023

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Resource Type:

Database
Journal Article
Journal Article
MPT Articles
MPT Article
Resource

Citation:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) and unplanned pregnancy affect female reproductive health globally. A single product providing a dual purpose of HIV prophylaxis and contraception may improve adherence to the therapy. Thus, we formulated a female-centric multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) comprising of nanoparticle loaded vaginal gel formulation acting as a contraceptive and microbicide. Eudragit® S100 nanoparticles of Atazanavir sulphate (ATZ; antiviral) and Fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX; repurposed spermicide) were prepared for pH dependent drug release and loaded in carrageenan and HPMC K200M gel. The particle size of ATZ and FLX nanoparticles was 396.7 ± 20.64 nm and 226.5 ± 2.08 nm respectively. The in vitro release of the gel formulation in simulated seminal fluid (pH 7.6) showed 96.16% and 95.98% release of ATZ and FLX respectively at the end of 8 h. The in vitro anti-HIV and spermicidal activity of the formulation was above 80% for low drug concentrations. In vivo studies on murine model showed no signs of inflammation or vaginal epithelial injury. Curcumin based imaging confirmed the retention of the formulation in the reproductive tract of mice with minimal leakage. Nanoparticles in gel enabled non-invasive and localised delivery with minimal side effects and can be an effective prophylactic therapy.

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Authors: Fernandes, T., Patel, V., Aranha, C., Velhal, S., Momin, M., Mulkutkar, M. and Sawarkar, S.

Health Risks(s):

  • HIV
  • Unintended Pregnancy

Product type(s):

  • Contraceptives
  • HIVinhibitor
  • HIVtreatment
  • Microbicide
  • MPTs

Topic(s):

  • DrugInteractions
  • MPTs
  • Development

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