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Medroxyprogesterone acetate inhibits wound closure of human endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts in vitro

Mucosal integrity in the endometrium is essential for immune protection. Since breaches or injury to the epithelial barrier exposes underlying tissue and is hypothesized to increase infection risk, we determined whether endogenous progesterone or three exogenous progestins (medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), norethindrone (NET), and levonorgestrel (LNG)) used by women as contraceptives interfere with wound closure of endometrial epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro. Progesterone and LNG had no inhibitory effect on wound closure by either epithelial cells or fibroblasts. MPA significantly impaired wound closure in both cell types and delayed the reestablishment of transepithelial resistance by epithelial cells. In contrast to MPA, NET selectively decreased wound closure by stromal fibroblasts but not epithelial cells. Following epithelial injury, MPA but not LNG or NET, blocked the injury-induced upregulation of HBD2, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial implicated in wound healing, but had no effect on the secretion of RANTES, CCL20 and SDF-1. This study demonstrates that, unlike progesterone and LNG, MPA and NET may interfere with wound closure following injury in the endometrium, potential LNG had no inhibitory effect on wound closure by either epithelial cells or fibroblasts. MPA significantly impaired wound closure in both cell types and delayed the reestablishment of transepithelial resistance by epithelial cells. In contrast to MPA, NET selectively decreased wound closure by stromal fibroblasts but not epithelial cells. Following epithelial injury, MPA but not LNG or NET, blocked the injury-induced upregulation of HBD2, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial implicated in wound healing, but had no effect on the secretion of RANTES, CCL20 and SDF-1. This study demonstrates that, unlike progesterone and LNG, MPA and NET may interfere with wound closure following injury in the endometrium, potentially conferring a higher risk of pathogen transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating progestins for their impact on wound repair at mucosal surfaces, conferring a higher risk of pathogen transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating progestins for their impact on wound repair at mucosal surfaces.

December 2021

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Mucosal integrity in the endometrium is essential for immune protection. Since breaches or injury to the epithelial barrier exposes underlying tissue and is hypothesized to increase infection risk, we determined whether endogenous progesterone or three exogenous progestins (medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), norethindrone (NET), and levonorgestrel (LNG)) used by women as contraceptives interfere with wound closure of endometrial epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro. Progesterone and LNG had no inhibitory effect on wound closure by either epithelial cells or fibroblasts. MPA significantly impaired wound closure in both cell types and delayed the reestablishment of transepithelial resistance by epithelial cells. In contrast to MPA, NET selectively decreased wound closure by stromal fibroblasts but not epithelial cells. Following epithelial injury, MPA but not LNG or NET, blocked the injury-induced upregulation of HBD2, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial implicated in wound healing, but had no effect on the secretion of RANTES, CCL20 and SDF-1. This study demonstrates that, unlike progesterone and LNG, MPA and NET may interfere with wound closure following injury in the endometrium, potentialLNG had no inhibitory effect on wound closure by either epithelial cells or fibroblasts. MPA significantly impaired wound closure in both cell types and delayed the reestablishment of transepithelial resistance by epithelial cells. In contrast to MPA, NET selectively decreased wound closure by stromal fibroblasts but not epithelial cells. Following epithelial injury, MPA but not LNG or NET, blocked the injury-induced upregulation of HBD2, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial implicated in wound healing, but had no effect on the secretion of RANTES, CCL20 and SDF-1. This study demonstrates that, unlike progesterone and LNG, MPA and NET may interfere with wound closure following injury in the endometrium, potentially conferring a higher risk of pathogen transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating progestins for their impact on wound repair at mucosal surfaces.ly conferring a higher risk of pathogen transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating progestins for their impact on wound repair at mucosal surfaces.

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Authors: Patel, MV ; Rodriguez-Garcia, M ; Shen, Z

Health Risks(s):

  • Unintended Pregnancy

Product type(s):

  • Contraceptives

Topic(s):

  • Development

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